Russel, Julius Benedict, Rochlitz, etc. We must not forget this fact to understand properly the passionate independence of Beethoven's nature and so many other traits which are not really German in his character. Schade at Augsburg, 15th September, I myself knew, when I was but fifteen. On that occasion he met Mozart who, however, took little notice of him. Haydn, whose acquaintance he made at Bonn in December, , gave him some lessons. Beethoven also had for masters, Albrechtsberger and Salieri. The first-named taught him Counterpoint and Fugue, the second trained him in vocal writing.
Let us notice in passing that in the catalogue of his works, Opus one alone Three Trios was written before Opus 2, the first three Piano Sonatas appeared in March, It may, therefore, be said that the whole of Beethoven's work is that of a deaf man. See the article on Beethoven's deafness by Dr.
Klotz Forest in the "Medical Chronicle" of 15th May, The writer of the article believes that the complaint had its origin in a general hereditary affliction perhaps in the phthisis of his mother. The deafness increased without ever becoming total.
Beethoven heard low sounds better than high ones. In his last years it is said that he used a wooden rod, one end of which was placed in the piano sound-box, the other between his teeth. He used this means of hearing when he composed.
An die Hoffnung
On the same question see C. There are preserved in the Beethoven museum at Bonn the acoustical instruments made for Beethoven, about , by the mechanician Maelzel. Rolland's text. Shedlock's translation from the original German may be seen on pages 65 et seq. Beethoven helped Gallenberg. But he scorned to take advantage of the position. That alone can make them happy; money will not.
I speak from experience.
It is that which sustained me in my misery. Virtue and Art alone have saved me from taking my own life. Breaking out into a fury, he cried: "He is only an ordinary man"; and in his indignation he tore off the dedication and wrote the avenging and touching title: Sinfonia Eroica composta per festeggiare il souvenire di un grand Uomo.
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Heroic Symphony composed to celebrate the memory of a great man. Schindler relates that later on his scorn for Napoleon became more subdued; he saw in him rather the unfortunate victim of circumstances worthy of pity, an Icarus flung down from Heaven. When he heard of the St.
Helena catastrophe in , he remarked: "I composed the music suitable for this sad event some seventeen years ago. There was then probably in the Eroica Symphony and especially in the first movement, a kind of portrait of Bonaparte in Beethoven's mind, doubtless very different from the real man, and rather what he imagined him to be or would have liked him to be—the genius of the Revolution.
Beethoven, in the Finale of the Eroica Symphony, used again one of the chief phrases of the work he had already written on the revolutionary hero par excellence, the god of liberty, Prometheus, Robert de Keudell played this Sonata to Bismarck on an indifferent piano on 30th October, , at Versailles. Bismarck remarked regarding the latter part of the work: "The sighs and struggles of a whole life are in this music.
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It gives a picturesque description of the disorder in Beethoven's room. They talked together of philosophy, religion, politics, and "especially of Shakespeare. Beethoven had met the Brunsviks at Vienna between and Giulietta Guicciardi was the cousin of Theresa. Beethoven seems also to have been attracted at one period by one of Theresa's sisters, Josephine, who first married Count Deym, and later on, the Baron Stackelberg. Some very striking details on the Brunsvik family are found in an article by M.
For this study M. Memoires and the papers of Theresa, which were preserved at Martonvasar in Hungary. They all show an affectionate intimacy between Beethoven and the Brunsviks, and raise again the question of his love for Theresa. But the arguments are not convincing, and I leave them to be discussed at some future time. This beautiful air appears in the album which Bach wrote for his wife, Anna Magdalena. Ignaz von Seyfried says that this was caused by smallpox, and that he was obliged to wear spectacles when quite young.
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This short-sightedness would probably exaggerate the wild expression of his eyes. His letters between contain frequent complaints on the subject of his eyes which were often painful. Beethoven had also wished to write the music to William Tell, but Gyrovetz was chosen before him. And also "Goethe and Schiller are my favourite poets, together with Ossian and Homer, whom, unfortunately, I can only read in translations.
It is remarkable that Beethoven's taste in literature was so sound in view of his neglected education. In addition to Goethe, who he said was "grand, majestic, always in D major" and more than Goethe he loved three men, Homer, Plutarch and Shakespeare. Of Homer's works he preferred the Odyssey to the Iliad ; he was continually reading Shakespeare from a German translation and we know with what tragic grandeur he has set Coriolanus and the Tempest in music.
He read Plutarch continually, as did all who were in favour of the revolution. Brutus was his hero, as was also the case with Michael Angelo; he had a small statue of him in his bedroom. He loved Plato, and dreamed of establishing his republic in the whole world. Bettina has perhaps embellished them a little, but the foundation remains reliable. We must excuse and pity him for he is deaf. At the bottom, however, he admired Beethoven's music and feared it also.
He was afraid it would cause him to lose that mental calm which he had gained through so much trouble. A letter of young Felix Mendelssohn, who passed through Weimar in , gives us a very interesting glimpse into the depths of that storm-tossed passionate soul, controlled as it was by a masterly and powerful intellect He would not show anything outwardly, but merely remarked to me, 'that does not touch me, it only surprises me.
I saw quite clearly that a deep impression had been made on him Zelter to Goethe, 14th September, " Auch ich bewundere ihn mit Schrecken " "I, too, regard him with mingled admiration and dread". Zelter writes to Goethe in , "They say he is mad. It is the first of all kingdoms, temporal and spiritual. All trace of German Protestantism eradicated, even the national accent lost, Italianised German spirit, German habits and ways explained from textbooks of Italian and Spanish origin The country of debased history, falsified science, falsified religion A frivolous scepticism calculated to undermine all love of truth, honour, and independence!
Wagner, Beethoven , Grillparzer has written that it was a misfortune to be born an Austrian. The great German composers of the end of the 19th Century who have lived in Vienna, have suffered cruelly from the spirit of this town, delivered up to the Pharisaical cult of Brahms.
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The life of Bruckner was one long martyrdom. Hugo Wolf, who battled furiously before giving in, has uttered implacable judgments on Vienna. Beethoven was eager to go. Bauernfold quoted by Ehrhard notes in his Journal this criticism which circulated in the Viennese salons in "Mozart and Beethoven are old pedants; the stupidity of the preceding period amused them: it is only since Rossini that one has really known melody.
Fidelio is quite devoid of music; one cannot understand why people take the trouble to weary themselves with it. She lost her only son suddenly in Beethoven dedicated to her in his two Trios Op. During October, , he was very ill.
In the summer of his doctor said he had a chest complaint. During the winter, , he was tormented with his so-called phthisis. Then he had acute rheumatism in , jaundice in , and several maladies in The mother of the historian, von Frimmel, says that for a long while she had an involuntary dislike for Beethoven, because when she was a little girl he drove away with his handkerchief all the butterflies that she wanted to catch. In thirty-five years in Vienna, he changed his rooms thirty times. Kalischer, shews with what deep feeling Beethoven wished to make his nephew "a citizen useful to the state" February 1st, He would have died had Carl died.
He died soon afterwards. This is not surprising. Schiller's Ode was written in The actual theme appeared in in the Fantasy for piano, orchestra and Choir, Op. I have seen in a notebook of belonging to Dr. Erich Prieger at Bonn, between the sketches of the Seventh Symphony and a plan for an Overture to Macbeth , an attempt to adopt some words of Schiller to the theme which he used later on in the Overture Op.
Several instrumental motives of the Ninth Symphony appeared before Thus the definite theme of Joy was put down in notes in ; also all the other airs of the Symphony , except the Trio, which came a little after, then the andante moderato , and later the adagio , which appeared last of all. For references to Schiller's poem and the false interpretation which is given now-a-days by substituting for the word Joy the word Liberty , see an article by Charles Andler in Pages Libres July 8, His enemies said he was exhausted.
He began to work again in Signed Prince C. Streicher, Zmeskall, Kiesewetter, etc. Even distinguished writers like Weisenbach have considered him worthy of the dedication of their works. Mendelssohn, then aged seventeen, gave a performance of it on the piano at the Jaegerhalle in Berlin on November 14th, Wagner, a student at Leipzig, re-copied it entirely by hand; and in a letter, dated October 6th, , to the publisher, Schott, offered him a reduction of the Symphony for pianoforte duet.
One can say that the Ninth Symphony decided Wagner's career.