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Candita Gual embarked on a journey that sought to recollect those memories and rituals that have been repressed. Just as important Ms. Gual presents an opportunity to discuss cultural and ethnic differences in the Lucumi community. This concern has broad implications as the tradition becomes more visible in the western world. So this collaboration of cultural memories, personal reflections and observations awakens the spirit that was momentarily lost but not forgotten.

Spectrum of Colors within Spirituality Seven Rays 7 Jefes

Enjoy the read and reconnect with the spirit in you. I first got the thoughts for this book because of the questions that a dear friend asked me regarding what she had experienced as she journeyed through the roads of spiritual and material evolution. Having lost the one person of trust, her mentor, she embarked on finding someone who embodied her teacher and could answer questions that still were within her. Her need to know forced me to reach deep inside myself and question what I had learned in 33 years of my life as a Yoruba priestess. She committed me to find for her answers that would satisfy her curiosity, deepen her understanding and confirm for herself the reasons she would continue to seek knowledge in this realm.

I hope that the reflections in this book will assist others and afford them a new perspective in defining: who they are, where they will go with the newfound gifts of spiritual and material enlightenment, and what they will do when they attain the knowledge they seek. It is a work in progress and will hopefully open the door to many more discussions and written works of this kind.

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I further thank my Orisha family, all over the world for the experiences they have given me as I traveled this road, and their input that for me is chronicled in this work. To Jose " Apache Rivera, I extend my gratitude for sharing his understanding of the musical rhythms and the mysteries that compose the call and answer" to which Spiritual entities respond and the many afternoons we spent listening to the music and examining its messages. To my beloved Master of Ceremonies, John Bermudez, Omo Obatala , affectionately known as Junior, who believed in my ability to write and communicate the legacy of this practice to the generations that follow, to Allison Lances, Obafunke whose passion for spirit gave me lively conversations and forced me to dig deeper, to Professor Robert Tate who provided for me his insight to the plight of my African American brothers and sisters, and finally to my mentor the incredible John McKoy, Obitaye , my Baba, my teacher and my best friend, Modupue!

I answered my four year old daughter. I thought my answer would satisfy my child; until her next question sat me down to contemplate my own continuous thoughts on the subject matter. Perhaps what had become a part of me growing up has helped to formulate this collage of thoughts regarding religion. I was raised in a strict Catholic household. Yet when sent from New Jersey to the bush of South Carolina during the summer months as a child, which was the family tradition; the children in the north should spend the summers with the family elders; my concept of religion was set for change.

On Sundays in the south, my Gullah speaking grandmother certainly did not embrace anything within the Catholic Church. Once in church, Lord knows the singing was nothing like in the Catholic Church. I was used to singing soft hymns. It is the color the eye sees looking at light with a wavelength of between and nanometers. In the traditional color wheel used by painters, violet and purple lie between red and blue.

Violet is inclined toward blue, while purple is inclined toward red. Violet colors composed by mixing blue and red light are within the purple colors [16] the word "purple" is used in the common sense for any color between blue and red.

In color theory , a purple is a color along the line of purples on the CIE chromaticity diagram and excludes violet. Violet light from the rainbow , which can be referred as spectral violet, has only short wavelengths. Violet objects are objects that reflect violet light. Objects reflecting spectral violet often appear dark, because human vision is relatively insensitive to those wavelengths.

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Monochromatic lamps emitting spectral-violet wavelengths can be roughly approximated by the color shown below as electric violet. The earliest violet pigments used by humans, found in prehistoric cave paintings, were made from the minerals manganese and hematite. Manganese is still used today by the Aranda people , a group of indigenous Australians , as a traditional pigment for coloring the skin during rituals.

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It is also used by the Hopi Indians of Arizona to color ritual objects. The most famous violet-purple dye in the ancient world was Tyrian purple , made from a type of sea snail called the murex , found around the Mediterranean. In western Polynesia , residents of the islands made a violet dye similar to Tyrian purple from the sea urchin. In Central America, the inhabitants made a dye from a different sea snail, the purpura , found on the coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

The Mayans used this color to dye fabric for religious ceremonies, and the Aztecs used it for paintings of ideograms, where it symbolized royalty. During the Middle Ages, most artists made purple or violet on their paintings by combining red and blue pigments; usually blue azurite or lapis-lazuli with red ochre , cinnabar or minium.

They also combined lake colors made by mixing dye with powder; using woad or indigo dye for the blue, and dye made from cochineal for the red. Orcein , or purple moss , was another common violet dye. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Hebrews, was made from a Mediterranean lichen called archil or dyer's moss Roccella tinctoria , combined with an ammoniac , usually urine.

Orcein began to achieve popularity again in the 19th century, when violet and purple became the color of demi-mourning, worn after a widow or widower had worn black for a certain time, before he or she returned to wearing ordinary colors. In the 18th century, chemists in England, France and Germany began to create the first synthetic dyes.

Two synthetic purple dyes were invented at about the same time. Cudbear is a dye extracted from orchil lichens that can be used to dye wool and silk , without the use of mordant. Cudbear was developed by Dr. Cuthbert Gordon of Scotland : production began in , The lichen is first boiled in a solution of ammonium carbonate. The mixture is then cooled and ammonia is added and the mixture is kept damp for 3—4 weeks. Then the lichen is dried and ground to powder. The manufacture details were carefully protected, with a ten-feet high wall being built around the manufacturing facility, and staff consisting of Highlanders sworn to secrecy.

French purple was developed in France at about the same time.

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The lichen is extracted by urine or ammonia. Then the extract is acidified, the dissolved dye precipitates and is washed. Then it is dissolved in ammonia again, the solution is heated in air until it becomes purple, then it is precipitated with calcium chloride ; the resulting dye was more solid and stable than other purples.

Cobalt violet is a synthetic pigment that was invented in the second half of the 19th century, and is made by a similar process as cobalt blue , cerulean blue and cobalt green.

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It is the violet pigment most commonly used today by artists, along with manganese violet. Mauveine , also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve , was the first synthetic organic chemical dye, [19] [20] discovered serendipitously in In the s, a new family of violet synthetic organic pigments called quinacridone came onto the market.

It had originally been discovered in , but were not synthetized until , and not manufactured until the s. The colors in the group range from deep red to violet in color, and have the molecular formula C 20 H 12 N 2 O 2. They have strong resistance to sunlight and washing, and are used in oil paints, water colors, and acrylics, as well as in automobile coatings and other industrial coatings. The marine hatchetfish here eating a small crustacean lives in extreme depths. It is luminous, and can adjust its light level to match the light coming from the surface, so as not to be visible to predators below.

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The purple sea urchin. The violet carpenter bee Xylocopa violacea is one of the largest bees in Europe. The violet-backed starling is found in sub-Saharan Africa. The imperial amazon parrot is featured on the national flag of Dominica , making it the only national flag in the world with a violet color. The iris flower takes its name from the Greek word for rainbow. A Japanese woman in the kimono style popular in the Heian Period — , with a violet head covering.

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Anthony stamp , was the reddish tone of violet known as red-violet since violet was a color that represented the Women's Suffrage movement. Violet flowers and their color became symbolically associated with lesbian love. In one poem, she describes a lost love wearing a garland of "violet tiaras, braided rosebuds, dill and crocus twined around" her neck. The flag of Dominica , features a sisserou parrot , a national symbol.

Flag of Nicaragua , although at this size the individual bands of the rainbow are nearly indistinguishable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the color. For other uses, see Violet. Sweet violet flowers. Lilac flowers. The shades of violet. The shades of purple. Violet on a TV or computer screen is made by mixing blue light with a less-intense red light. Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 29 December CS1 maint: archived copy as title link The colors displayed here are substantially paler than the true colors a mixture of paints would produce.