This UUIH has a history of what service and customer has owned that unique entity over time. Once a valid UUIH is determined, the rating engine determines the matching rate group based on location, time period and other characteristics that might be set. The rate is determined from that rate group. Once a rate is determined, the rating is computed on that UDR. Usage events are classified into UDR classes. These define the type of event and units of measure.
UDR classes can be configured to represent any measure of usage including storage, time, IO, bandwidth, transactions, and units. After rating, applicable taxes are computed on the amount.
Finally bucketing is performed to account for any special promotions, free usage or discounting that might apply. In order to perform rating, a rate plan needs to be created.
All it does is define the container for rate groups. Rate groups are what define the rates. A rate plan can contain multiple rate groups, each with their own rate plan.
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Furthermore, conditions can be imposed on the rate group for assigning different rates based on conditions: as an example it is common to charge a higher rate for peak hour service and a lower rate for off peak times. The actual rate is encapsulated in a UDR rate structure.
The figure below illustrates the relationship between a rate plan, rate groups, conditions and UDR rates. The rate plan is basically the plan that the customer signs up for. It is essentially a container for one or more rate groups. A rate plan can be assigned to a bucket, a tier in a bucket, a service or a package.
The order of precedence is from highest to lowest: bucket, service, package. Rate plan inheritance is also supported, where a sub account can inherit a rate plan configured at the parent. A rate plan is defined by a name. Each rate plan configuration also defines the level of precision used by the rating engine when processing charges associated with that plan; LogiSense supports up to 11 places of precision. One or more rate groups can be associated with a rate plan as shown in the figure above.
When viewing rate plan summary information, LogiSense will display references to the rate groups associated with that plan. A UDR rate group defines the umbrella under which a rate applies.
For example, in the telecom and UCaaS scenarios, different rates are applied to domestic vs international calls. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Net neutrality reloaded: zero rating, specialised service, ad blocking and traffic management 1. The opinions expressed in this work are the responsibility of the authors. For further information: www. Includes bilbliography. ISBN: 1. Net Neutrality. Internet - Public Policy.
Internet - Regulation. Belli, Luca. Internet Governance Forum. Dynamic Coalition on Network Neutrality. Title: Net Neutrality reloaded : Zero Rating, specialised service, ad blocking and traffic management. CDD — Luca Belli Yet, adoption of NN as a working policy was delayed as parties debated what NN should look like in practice. In , we witnessed several countries adopt a hard stance and prohibit certain behaviors now widely recognized as blatantly abusive.
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As such, NN became the legal rule in several nations worldwide. The very fact that NN was confirmed as law of the land in the U. For years, the Federal Communications Commission FCC acknowledged that the profit-seeking behavior of broadband services, when left unchecked, could impose a cost on web users, as well as diminish the innovative character of the internet. As might be expected, broadband providers challenged these regulations as interfering with efforts to recapture network costs and warned that it would have an inhibiting effect on future investments in internet infrastructure.
The U. Court of Appeals for the D. Circuit agreed with this line of reasoning and granted the FCC with requisite authority to design bright line rules for outlawing practices wholly inconsistent with NN — namely network degradation and paid prioritization. Indeed, the U. In short, democratic institutions worldwide were outlawing behaviors clearly in contravention of an open Internet — an acceptance of NN as the norm. That we see democratic nations tending towards NN should come as a surprise to few. A neutral network would ensure that developers of online applications succeed based on the quality of their product, and not merely by how much money they can immediately put forth.
Put differently, NN, as a non-discriminatory regime, is indispensable for promoting technological innovation through fair competition in the secondary application market. Second, the non-discriminatory character of NN is consistent with values of free expression and an open society. At this juncture, it is clear that network degradation and paid prioritization, because they discriminate against certain content, are inconsistent with a NN regime; thus, by banning such practices, democratic governments have demonstrated a commitment to preserving NN as a legal norm.
To put it differently, if broadband providers are prohibited from hindering user access to certain content, then does the negative inference also hold? Should broadband providers be prohibited from encouraging user access to certain content? Indeed, the topic of ZR should be approached cautiously.
On the one hand, ZR is a mechanism that can increase overall welfare: users, in certain instances, have greater network access at no cost while broadband providers have the liberty to improve its quality of service. Unlike network degradation and paid prioritization, ZR does 9.
Some have even heralded ZR as a potential remedy to the current digital divide by increasing internet access to underserved communities. Altogether, proponents believe that the positive effects, as it relates to innovation and user welfare, are reason enough for limiting government regulation in this area. On the other hand, ZR can have the effect of distorting the secondary market and in fact, often functions as an end-run around NN norms.
In many ways, ZR is similar to paid prioritization. First, ZR creates a bifurcated system in which users are incentivized to use certain forms of content over others and thus creates an unleveled playing field. Second, ZR tends to favor incumbent content providers, or those who have more resources, because the content provider typically must meet certain standards in order to be zero-rated. Third, ZR may keep certain emerging forms of expression at the fringe. Altogether, it is not difficult to imagine instances in which ZR can distort the content provider market and reduce both innovation and opportunities for greater expression, which is why many skeptics have urged application of per se illegality.
Perhaps at present, it is difficult to conclude whether ZR will always be irreconcilable with the principles of NN. In fact, many democratic institutions that have embraced NN have yet to decide whether ZR should similarly be presumptively banned.
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Thus, while it is clear that NN has, for the most part, become the legal norm, we yet to fully explore how the full range of practices should be regulated. The writing set forth in this report illuminates the type of issues and perspectives that can be found in the ZR debate and serves as the type of discourse necessary for further evaluation of NN as a working principle. Freedom of Expression and the Internet. Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression on the Internet. Wu, T. Network neutrality, broadband discrimination. Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law, 2. The editor would like to express gratitude to all the DCNN members for their precious inputs.
His works on Net Neutrality have been i. Gustaf has been gaining professional experience as a technologist and information security specialist since , most recently in the area of surveillance technology. He has worked in many different ICT environments and reckons he has seen just about everything. He has worked for dot com startups, led from the front during the internet boom, and endured the dot com bust. He has worked for small companies, rapidly growing companies, and very large corporations in the computer games, education, ISP, pharmaceutical, telecoms, and financial sectors.
From he founded and ran a hackerspace in Melbourne, Australia that housed over computers of every size, description and platform. He specializes in broadband policy, wireless enforcement, and spectrum - sharing mechanisms. He previously served as a research assistant at the Silicon Flatirons Center at the University of Colorado.
He is a Ph. Brito is an activist in matters of democracy, freedom of expression particularly Internet freedom and right to protest , privacy and access to information. Arturo J. Prior to entering the academy, he worked as a legal advisor on human rights for the United Nations, as well as for prominent non-governmental organizations in his native Colombia. His recent publications examine Net Neutrality issues from the perspective of international law. Previously, Dr. He has submitted expert reports and testified in US federal court as well before the Federal Communications He has written or edited 19 books and monographs, including Broadband Competition in the Internet Ecosystem and Competition, Innovation and the Microsoft Monopoly: Antitrust in the Digital Marketplace.
He works on projects that further conversations on digital rights and Internet freedom across Africa and also develops research papers, policy briefs and recommendations on ICT Policy roadmaps. He is a founding volunteer with the SaveTheInternet. Union of India judgment on internet free speech.